You can use one of the following methods to convert a data frame to a matrix in R:

**Method 1: Convert Data Frame of Numeric Columns to Matrix**

mat <- as.matrix(df)

**Method 2: Convert Data Frame with Characters / Factors to Matrix**

mat <- data.matrix(df)

Note that both methods use functions from base R, so you don’t have to install any external packages to use these methods.

The following examples show how to use each method in practice.

**Method 1: Convert Data Frame of Numeric Columns to Matrix**

Suppose we have the following data frame in R that only contains numeric columns:

#create data frame df <- data.frame(points=c(99, 90, 86, 88, 95), assists=c(33, 28, 31, 39, 34), rebounds=c(30, 28, 24, 24, 28)) #view data frame df points assists rebounds 1 99 33 30 2 90 28 28 3 86 31 24 4 88 39 24 5 95 34 28

We can use the **as.matrix()** function to quickly convert this data frame to a numeric matrix:

#convert data frame to matrix mat <- as.matrix(df) #view matrix mat points assists rebounds [1,] 99 33 30 [2,] 90 28 28 [3,] 86 31 24 [4,] 88 39 24 [5,] 95 34 28 #view class of mat class(mat) [1] "matrix" "array"

By using the **class()** function, we confirm that the new object is indeed a matrix.

**Method 2: Convert Data Frame with Characters / Factors to Matrix**

Suppose we have the following data frame in R that contains both character and numeric columns:

#create data frame df <- data.frame(team=c('A', 'A', 'B', 'B', 'C'), points=c(99, 90, 86, 88, 95), assists=c(33, 28, 31, 39, 34)) #view data frame df team points assists 1 A 99 33 2 A 90 28 3 B 86 31 4 B 88 39 5 C 95 34

We can use the **data.matrix()** function to quickly convert this data frame to a numeric matrix:

#convert data frame to matrix mat <- data.matrix(df) #view matrix mat team points assists [1,] 1 99 33 [2,] 1 90 28 [3,] 2 86 31 [4,] 2 88 39 [5,] 3 95 34 #view class of mat class(mat) [1] "matrix" "array"

By using the **class()** function, we confirm that the new object is indeed a matrix.

We can also type the following:

?data.matrix

Which tells us:

Description: Return the matrix obtained by converting all the variables in a data frame to numeric mode and then binding them together as the columns of a matrix. Factors and ordered factors are replaced by their internal codes.

This explains why the team names A, A, B, B, C were converted to the values 1, 1, 2, 2, 3.

**Additional Resources**

The following tutorials explain how to perform other common operations in R:

How to Convert Data Frame Column to Vector in R

How to Convert Matrix to Vector in R

How to Convert Table to Data Frame in R