You can use one of the following three methods to convert a data frame column to a vector in R:

#use $ operator new_vector <- df$column_name #use indexing new_vector <- df[['column_name']] #use 'pull' fromdplyrpackage new_vector <- dplyr::pull(df, column_name)

Each of these methods returns identical results.

The following examples show how to use each of these methods in practice with the following data frame:

#create data frame df <- data.frame(a=c(1, 2, 5, 6, 12, 14), b=c(8, 8, 9, 14, 22, 19), c=c(3, 3, 2, 1, 2, 10)) #display data frame df a b c 1 1 8 3 2 2 8 3 3 5 9 2 4 6 14 1 5 12 22 2 6 14 19 10

**Example 1: Use $ Operator**

The following code shows how to use the $ operator to convert a data frame column to a vector:

#convert column 'a' to vector new_vector <- df$a #view vector new_vector [1] 1 2 5 6 12 14 #view class of vector class(new_vector) [1] "numeric"

**Example 2: Use Indexing**

The following code shows how to use indexing to convert a data frame column to a vector:

#convert column 'a' to vector new_vector <- df[['a']] #view vector new_vector [1] 1 2 5 6 12 14 #view class of vector class(new_vector) [1] "numeric"

**Example 3: Use ‘pull’ from dplyr**

The following code shows how to use the ‘pull’ function from the dplyr package to convert a data frame column to a vector:

library(dplyr) #convert column 'a' to vector new_vector <- pull(df, a) #view vector new_vector [1] 1 2 5 6 12 14 #view class of vector class(new_vector) [1] "numeric"

Notice that all three methods return identical results.

**Note**: If you happen to be working with an extremely large dataset, the ‘pull’ function from the dplyr package will perform the fastest out of the three functions shared in this tutorial.

**Additional Resources**

How to Convert Matrix to Vector in R

How to Convert a List to a Data Frame in R

How to Convert Character to Numeric in R