This page lists all of the tutorials available on Statology.

**Introduction to Statistics**

**Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics: What’s the Difference?
Statistic vs. Parameter: What’s the Difference?
Levels of Measurement: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio
**

**Descriptive Statistics**

**Measures of Central Tendency – Mean, Median, and Mode**

How Do Outliers Affect the Mean?

**Measures of Dispersion – Range, Interquartile Range, Variance, and Standard Deviation**

Is the Interquartile Range (IQR) Affected By Outliers?

Can Kurtosis Be Negative?

SOCS: A Helpful Acronym for Describing Distributions

Kendall’s Tau: Definition + Example

How Do Outliers Affect the Mean?

Is the Interquartile Range (IQR) Affected By Outliers?

Can Kurtosis Be Negative?

SOCS: A Helpful Acronym for Describing Distributions

Kendall’s Tau: Definition + Example

**Visualizing Data**

**Boxplots**

**Stem and leaf plots**

**Scatterplots**

How to Find Conditional Relative Frequency in a Two-Way Table

**Dixon’s Q Test for Detecting Outliers**

**Relative Frequency Histogram: Definition + Example**

**How to Find Class Midpoints in a Frequency Distribution**

How to Find Conditional Relative Frequency in a Two-Way Table

**Probability**

**Theoretical Probability: Definition + Examples**

Posterior Probability: Definition + Example

How to Interpret Odds Ratios

Posterior Probability: Definition + Example

How to Interpret Odds Ratios

**Study Design**

**Sampling Methods**

Snowball Sampling: Definition + Examples

What is a Representative Sample and Why is it Important?

Random Selection vs. Random Assignment

Confidentiality vs Anonymity: What’s the Difference?

Understanding Lurking Variables: An Explanation & Examples

Matched Pairs Design: Definition + Examples

Nonresponse Bias: Explanation, Examples, & How to Prevent It

Undercoverage Bias: Explanation, Examples, & How to Prevent It

Pseudoreplication in Statistics: An Explanation, Examples, & What to Do About It

A Simple Explanation of Internal Consistency

Treatment Diffusion: Definition + Example

Split-Half Reliability: Definition + Examples

A Guide to the Benjamini-Hochberg Procedure

Snowball Sampling: Definition + Examples

What is a Representative Sample and Why is it Important?

Random Selection vs. Random Assignment

Confidentiality vs Anonymity: What’s the Difference?

Understanding Lurking Variables: An Explanation & Examples

Matched Pairs Design: Definition + Examples

Nonresponse Bias: Explanation, Examples, & How to Prevent It

Undercoverage Bias: Explanation, Examples, & How to Prevent It

Pseudoreplication in Statistics: An Explanation, Examples, & What to Do About It

A Simple Explanation of Internal Consistency

Treatment Diffusion: Definition + Example

Split-Half Reliability: Definition + Examples

A Guide to the Benjamini-Hochberg Procedure

**Random Variables**

**Discrete Random Variables**

Continuous Random Variables

CDF vs. PDF: What’s the Difference?

The Normal Distribution

Empirical Rule (Practice Problems)

Can a Z-Score Be Negative?

**Converting Between Z-Scores and Percentiles Using the Normal Distribution**

Combining Normal Random Variables

Binomial Experiments: An Explanation + Examples

A Simple Explanation of Continuity Correction in Statistics

Continuous Random Variables

CDF vs. PDF: What’s the Difference?

The Normal Distribution

Empirical Rule (Practice Problems)

Can a Z-Score Be Negative?

Combining Normal Random Variables

Binomial Experiments: An Explanation + Examples

A Simple Explanation of Continuity Correction in Statistics

**Sampling Distributions**

**What is a Sampling Distribution?**

Understanding the Central Limit Theorem

Understanding the Central Limit Theorem

**Confidence Intervals**

**Introduction to Confidence Intervals**

Confidence Interval for a Mean

Confidence Interval for a Difference in Means

Confidence Interval for a Proportion

Confidence Interval for a Difference in Proportions

Bootstrapping in Statistics

How to Create a Confidence Interval Using the F Distribution

Confidence Interval for a Mean

Confidence Interval for a Difference in Means

Confidence Interval for a Proportion

Confidence Interval for a Difference in Proportions

Bootstrapping in Statistics

How to Create a Confidence Interval Using the F Distribution

**Hypothesis Testing**

**Introduction to Hypothesis Testing**

How to Conduct a One Sample t Test

How to Calculate a P-Value from a T-Test By Hand

Hypothesis Testing for a Difference in Means

A Guide to Welch’s t-test (When to Use it + Examples)

Hypothesis Testing for a Difference in Paired Means

Hypothesis Testing for a Proportion

Hypothesis Testing for a Difference in Proportions

Three Ways to Find a P-Value from a t Statistic

Mann-Whitney U Test

How to Perform the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

**How to Interpret a P-Value of 0.000 **

An Explanation of P-Values and Statistical Significance

A Simple Explanation of Statistical vs. Practical Significance

Effect Size: What It Is and Why It Matters

Bayes Factor: Definition + Interpretation

How to Conduct a One Sample t Test

How to Calculate a P-Value from a T-Test By Hand

Hypothesis Testing for a Difference in Means

A Guide to Welch’s t-test (When to Use it + Examples)

Hypothesis Testing for a Difference in Paired Means

Hypothesis Testing for a Proportion

Hypothesis Testing for a Difference in Proportions

Three Ways to Find a P-Value from a t Statistic

Mann-Whitney U Test

How to Perform the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

An Explanation of P-Values and Statistical Significance

A Simple Explanation of Statistical vs. Practical Significance

Effect Size: What It Is and Why It Matters

Bayes Factor: Definition + Interpretation

**Chi-Square Tests**

**Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit**

Chi-Square Test for Homogeneity

Chi-Square Test for Independence

Chi-Square Test vs. t-Test: What’s the Difference?

Three Ways to Calculate Effect Size for a Chi-Square Test

Chi-Square Test for Homogeneity

Chi-Square Test for Independence

Chi-Square Test vs. t-Test: What’s the Difference?

Three Ways to Calculate Effect Size for a Chi-Square Test

**Regression**

**Pearson Correlation Coefficient**

What is Considered to Be a “Strong” Correlation?

How to Read a Correlation Matrix

**Introduction to Simple Linear Regression**

The Four Assumptions of Linear Regression

**Testing the Significance of a Regression Slope**

How to Read and Interpret a Regression Table

How to Interpret Regression Coefficients

A Simple Guide to Understanding the F-Test of Overall Significance in Regression

Understanding the Standard Error of the Regression

How to Calculate Residuals in Regression Analysis

**What is a Good R-squared Value?**

Understanding Heteroscedasticity in Regression

A Guide to Multicollinearity in Regression

How to Interpret the C-Statistic of a Logistic Regression Model

What is a Criterion Variable? (Explanation + Examples)

What is a Brier Score?

What is Considered to Be a “Strong” Correlation?

How to Read a Correlation Matrix

The Four Assumptions of Linear Regression

How to Read and Interpret a Regression Table

How to Interpret Regression Coefficients

A Simple Guide to Understanding the F-Test of Overall Significance in Regression

Understanding the Standard Error of the Regression

How to Calculate Residuals in Regression Analysis

Understanding Heteroscedasticity in Regression

A Guide to Multicollinearity in Regression

How to Interpret the C-Statistic of a Logistic Regression Model

What is a Criterion Variable? (Explanation + Examples)

What is a Brier Score?

**ANOVA**

**One-Way ANOVA**

How to Check ANOVA Assumptions

Kruskal-Wallis Test

One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA

Two-Way ANOVA

A Guide to Using Post Hoc Tests with ANOVA

Understanding the Differences Between ANOVA, ANCOVA, MANOVA, and MANCOVA

What is the Difference Between a T-test and an ANOVA?

How to Check ANOVA Assumptions

Kruskal-Wallis Test

One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA

Two-Way ANOVA

A Guide to Using Post Hoc Tests with ANOVA

Understanding the Differences Between ANOVA, ANCOVA, MANOVA, and MANCOVA

What is the Difference Between a T-test and an ANOVA?

**Matrix Algebra**

**Matrix Multiplication: (2×2) by (2×2)**

**Matrix Multiplication: (2×2) by (2×3)**

**Matrix Multiplication: (3×3) by (3×2)**

**Time Series**

**Ljung-Box Test: Definition + Example**

**Maximum Likelihood Estimation**

**Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) for a Uniform Distribution**