# How to Perform Reverse Scoring in Google Sheets

When creating surveys, researchers sometimes rephrase “positive” questions in a “negative” way to make sure that individuals are giving consistent responses.

We say that these types of questions are reverse-scored.

When using a survey to assign a composite score to individuals, it’s important to make sure the reverse-coded questions are reverse-scored as well.

The following example shows how to reverse the scores on reverse-coded questions in Google Sheets.

## Example: How to Perform Reverse Scoring in Google Sheets

Suppose a researcher administers a survey with 5 questions to 10 individuals in which the possible responses to each questions are:

• Strongly Agree
• Agree
• Neither Agree Nor Disagree
• Disagree
• Strongly Disagree

The following dataset in Google Sheets shows the results of the survey in which “Strongly Agree” is assigned a value of 5, “Agree” is assigned a value of 4, and so on:

Suppose questions 2 and 5 are reverse coded, so we must reverse their scores.

In other words:

• 1 should become 5.
• 2 should become 4.
• 3 should become 3.
• 4 should become 2.
• 5 should become 1.

To do so, we can add 1 to the max possible score (5) to get 6. Then, we can subtract the original scores from 6 to get the reverse scored value.

For example:

• 5 becomes: 6 – 5 = 1.
• 4 becomes: 6 – 4 = 2.
• 3 becomes: 6 – 3 = 3.
• 2 becomes: 6 – 2 = 4.
• 1 becomes: 6 – 1 = 5.

To do this in Google Sheets, first copy and paste all of the original answers into a new area on the spreadsheet:

In cell B16 type: =6-B2. Then copy and paste this formula down to all other cells in column B.

In cell E16 type: =6-E2. Then copy and paste this formula down to all other cells in column E.

The values in column B and column E will now both be reverse coded: