# XGBoost in R: A Step-by-Step Example

Boosting is a technique in machine learning that has been shown to produce models with high predictive accuracy.

One of the most common ways to implement boosting in practice is to use XGBoost, short for “extreme gradient boosting.”

This tutorial provides a step-by-step example of how to use XGBoost to fit a boosted model in R.

### Step 1: Load the Necessary Packages

First, we’ll load the necessary libraries.

```library(xgboost) #for fitting the xgboost model
library(caret)   #for general data preparation and model fitting
```

### Step 2: Load the Data

For this example we’ll fit a boosted regression model to the Boston dataset from the MASS package.

This dataset contains 13 predictor variables that we’ll use to predict one response variable called mdev, which represents the median value of homes in different census tracts around Boston.

```#load the data
data = MASS::Boston

#view the structure of the data
str(data)

'data.frame':	506 obs. of  14 variables:
\$ crim   : num  0.00632 0.02731 0.02729 0.03237 0.06905 ...
\$ zn     : num  18 0 0 0 0 0 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 ...
\$ indus  : num  2.31 7.07 7.07 2.18 2.18 2.18 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 ...
\$ chas   : int  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...
\$ nox    : num  0.538 0.469 0.469 0.458 0.458 0.458 0.524 0.524 0.524 0.524 ...
\$ rm     : num  6.58 6.42 7.18 7 7.15 ...
\$ age    : num  65.2 78.9 61.1 45.8 54.2 58.7 66.6 96.1 100 85.9 ...
\$ dis    : num  4.09 4.97 4.97 6.06 6.06 ...
\$ rad    : int  1 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 ...
\$ tax    : num  296 242 242 222 222 222 311 311 311 311 ...
\$ ptratio: num  15.3 17.8 17.8 18.7 18.7 18.7 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 ...
\$ black  : num  397 397 393 395 397 ...
\$ lstat  : num  4.98 9.14 4.03 2.94 5.33 ...
\$ medv   : num  24 21.6 34.7 33.4 36.2 28.7 22.9 27.1 16.5 18.9 ...
```

We can see that the dataset contains 506 observations and 14 total variables.

### Step 3: Prep the Data

Next, we’ll use the createDataPartition() function from the caret package to split the original dataset into a training and testing set.

For this example, we’ll choose to use 80% of the original dataset as part of the training set.

Note that the xgboost package also uses matrix data, so we’ll use the data.matrix() function to hold our predictor variables.

```#make this example reproducible
set.seed(0)

#split into training (80%) and testing set (20%)
parts = createDataPartition(data\$medv, p = .8, list = F)
train = data[parts, ]
test = data[-parts, ]

#define predictor and response variables in training set
train_x = data.matrix(train[, -13])
train_y = train[,13]

#define predictor and response variables in testing set
test_x = data.matrix(test[, -13])
test_y = test[, 13]

#define final training and testing sets
xgb_train = xgb.DMatrix(data = train_x, label = train_y)
xgb_test = xgb.DMatrix(data = test_x, label = test_y)
```

### Step 4: Fit the Model

Next, we’ll fit the XGBoost model by using the xgb.train() function, which displays the training and testing RMSE (root mean squared error) for each round of boosting.

Note that we chose to use 70 rounds for this example, but for much larger datasets it’s not uncommon to use hundreds or even thousands of rounds. Just keep in mind that the more rounds, the longer the run time.

Also note that the max.depth argument specifies how deep to grow the individual decision trees. We typically choose this number to be quite low like 2 or 3 so that smaller trees are grown. It has been shown that this approach tends to produce more accurate models.

```#define watchlist
watchlist = list(train=xgb_train, test=xgb_test)

#fit XGBoost model and display training and testing data at each round
model = xgb.train(data = xgb_train, max.depth = 3, watchlist=watchlist, nrounds = 70)

[1]	train-rmse:10.167523	test-rmse:10.839775
[2]	train-rmse:7.521903	test-rmse:8.329679
[3]	train-rmse:5.702393	test-rmse:6.691415
[4]	train-rmse:4.463687	test-rmse:5.631310
[5]	train-rmse:3.666278	test-rmse:4.878750
[6]	train-rmse:3.159799	test-rmse:4.485698
[7]	train-rmse:2.855133	test-rmse:4.230533
[8]	train-rmse:2.603367	test-rmse:4.099881
[9]	train-rmse:2.445718	test-rmse:4.084360
[10]	train-rmse:2.327318	test-rmse:3.993562
[11]	train-rmse:2.267629	test-rmse:3.944454
[12]	train-rmse:2.189527	test-rmse:3.930808
[13]	train-rmse:2.119130	test-rmse:3.865036
[14]	train-rmse:2.086450	test-rmse:3.875088
[15]	train-rmse:2.038356	test-rmse:3.881442
[16]	train-rmse:2.010995	test-rmse:3.883322
[17]	train-rmse:1.949505	test-rmse:3.844382
[18]	train-rmse:1.911711	test-rmse:3.809830
[19]	train-rmse:1.888488	test-rmse:3.809830
[20]	train-rmse:1.832443	test-rmse:3.758502
[21]	train-rmse:1.816150	test-rmse:3.770216
[22]	train-rmse:1.801369	test-rmse:3.770474
[23]	train-rmse:1.788891	test-rmse:3.766608
[24]	train-rmse:1.751795	test-rmse:3.749583
[25]	train-rmse:1.713306	test-rmse:3.720173
[26]	train-rmse:1.672227	test-rmse:3.675086
[27]	train-rmse:1.648323	test-rmse:3.675977
[28]	train-rmse:1.609927	test-rmse:3.745338
[29]	train-rmse:1.594891	test-rmse:3.756049
[30]	train-rmse:1.578573	test-rmse:3.760104
[31]	train-rmse:1.559810	test-rmse:3.727940
[32]	train-rmse:1.547852	test-rmse:3.731702
[33]	train-rmse:1.534589	test-rmse:3.729761
[34]	train-rmse:1.520566	test-rmse:3.742681
[35]	train-rmse:1.495155	test-rmse:3.732993
[36]	train-rmse:1.467939	test-rmse:3.738329
[37]	train-rmse:1.446343	test-rmse:3.713748
[38]	train-rmse:1.435368	test-rmse:3.709469
[39]	train-rmse:1.401356	test-rmse:3.710637
[40]	train-rmse:1.390318	test-rmse:3.709461
[41]	train-rmse:1.372635	test-rmse:3.708049
[42]	train-rmse:1.367977	test-rmse:3.707429
[43]	train-rmse:1.359531	test-rmse:3.711663
[44]	train-rmse:1.335347	test-rmse:3.709101
[45]	train-rmse:1.331750	test-rmse:3.712490
[46]	train-rmse:1.313087	test-rmse:3.722981
[47]	train-rmse:1.284392	test-rmse:3.712840
[48]	train-rmse:1.257714	test-rmse:3.697482
[49]	train-rmse:1.248218	test-rmse:3.700167
[50]	train-rmse:1.243377	test-rmse:3.697914
[51]	train-rmse:1.231956	test-rmse:3.695797
[52]	train-rmse:1.219341	test-rmse:3.696277
[53]	train-rmse:1.207413	test-rmse:3.691465
[54]	train-rmse:1.197197	test-rmse:3.692108
[55]	train-rmse:1.171748	test-rmse:3.683577
[56]	train-rmse:1.156332	test-rmse:3.674458
[57]	train-rmse:1.147686	test-rmse:3.686367
[58]	train-rmse:1.143572	test-rmse:3.686375
[59]	train-rmse:1.129780	test-rmse:3.679791
[60]	train-rmse:1.111257	test-rmse:3.679022
[61]	train-rmse:1.093541	test-rmse:3.699670
[62]	train-rmse:1.083934	test-rmse:3.708187
[63]	train-rmse:1.067109	test-rmse:3.712538
[64]	train-rmse:1.053887	test-rmse:3.722480
[65]	train-rmse:1.042127	test-rmse:3.720720
[66]	train-rmse:1.031617	test-rmse:3.721224
[67]	train-rmse:1.016274	test-rmse:3.699549
[68]	train-rmse:1.008184	test-rmse:3.709522
[69]	train-rmse:0.999220	test-rmse:3.708000
[70]	train-rmse:0.985907	test-rmse:3.705192
```

From the output we can see that the minimum testing RMSE is achieved at 56 rounds. Beyond this point, the test RMSE actually begins to increase, which is a sign that we’re overfitting the training data.

Thus, we’ll define our final XGBoost model to use 56 rounds:

```#define final model
final = xgboost(data = xgb_train, max.depth = 3, nrounds = 56, verbose = 0)```

Note: The argument verbose = 0 tells R not to display the training and testing error for each round.

### Step 5: Use the Model to Make Predictions

Lastly, we can use the final boosted model to make predictions about the median house value of Boston homes in the testing set.

We will then calculate the following accuracy measures for the model:

• MSE: Mean Squared Error
• MAE: Mean Absolute Error
• RMSE: Root Mean Squared Error
```mean((test_y - pred_y)^2) #mse
caret::MAE(test_y, pred_y) #mae
caret::RMSE(test_y, pred_y) #rmse

[1] 13.50164
[1] 2.409426
[1] 3.674457 ```

The root mean squared error turns out to be 3.674457. This represents the average difference between the prediction made for the median house values and the actual observed house values in the test set.

If we want, we could compare this RMSE to other models like multiple linear regression, ridge regression, principal components regression, etc. to see which model produces the most accurate predictions.

You can find the complete R code used in this example here.