In statistics, **cases** simply refer to the individuals in a dataset.

In most datasets, we have **cases** (the individuals) and **variables** (the attributes for the individuals).

For example, the following dataset contains 10 cases and 3 variables that we measure for each case:

Notice that each case has multiple variables or “attributes.”

For example, each player has a value for points, assists, and rebounds.

Note that cases are also sometimes called **experimental units**. These terms are used interchangeably.

Check out the following examples to gain an even better understanding of cases.

**Example 1: Education**

The following dataset contains 10 cases and 2 variables:

The **cases** are the individual students and the **variables** are time studied and exam score.

**Example 2: Business**

The following dataset contains 6 cases and 3 variables:

The **cases** are the individual stores and the **variables** are total sales, total customers, and total refunds.

**Example 3: Biology**

The following dataset contains 15 cases and 3 variables:

The **cases** are the individual plants and the **variables** are height, width, and age.

**Additional Resources**

The following tutorials provide additional information on other terms commonly used in statistics:

What is an Observation in Statistics?

What is an Influential Observation in Statistics?

What is a Covariate in Statistics?

What is a Parameter of Interest in Statistics?