# How to Add Superscripts & Subscripts to Plots in R

You can use the following basic syntax to add superscripts or subscripts to plots in R:

```#define expression with superscript
x_expression <- expression(x^3 ~ variable ~ label)

#define expression with subscript
y_expression <- expression(y ~ variable ~ label)

plot(x, y, xlab = x_expression, ylab = y_expression)
```

The following examples show how to use this syntax in practice.

### Example 1: Add Superscripts to Axis Labels

The following code shows how to add superscripts to the axis labels of a plot in R:

```#define data
x <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)
y <- c(9, 12, 14, 16, 15, 19, 26, 29)

#define x and y-axis labels with superscripts
x_expression <- expression(x^3 ~ variable ~ label)
y_expression <- expression(y^3 ~ variable ~ label)

#create plot
plot(x, y, xlab = x_expression, ylab = y_expression)
``` Notice that both the x-axis and y-axis have a superscript in their label.

The y-axis superscript is a bit cut off in the plot. To move the axis labels closer to the plot, we can use the par() function in R:

```#adjust par values (default is (3, 0, 0))
par(mgp=c(2.5, 1, 0))

#create plot
plot(x, y, xlab = x_expression, ylab = y_expression)``` Note: We chose “3” as a random value to place in the superscript. Feel free to place any numeric value or character in the superscript.

### Example 2: Add Subscripts to Axis Labels

The following code shows how to add subscripts to the axis labels of a plot in R:

```#define data
x <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)
y <- c(9, 12, 14, 16, 15, 19, 26, 29)

#define x and y-axis labels with superscripts
x_expression <- expression(x ~ variable ~ label)
y_expression <- expression(y ~ variable ~ label)

#create plot
plot(x, y, xlab = x_expression, ylab = y_expression)``` ### Example 3: Add Superscripts & Subscripts Inside Plot

The following code shows how to add a superscript to a text element inside a plot:

```#define data
x <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)
y <- c(9, 12, 14, 16, 15, 19, 26, 29)

#create plot
plot(x, y)

#define label with superscript to add to plot
R2_expression <- expression(paste(" ", R^2 , "= ", .905)) 