# How to Extract P-Values from Linear Regression in Statsmodels

You can use the following methods to extract p-values for the coefficients in a linear regression model fit using the statsmodels module in Python:

```#extract p-values for all predictor variables
for x in range (0, 3):
print(model.pvalues[x])

#extract p-value for specific predictor variable name
model.pvalues.loc['predictor1']

#extract p-value for specific predictor variable position
model.pvalues[0]
```

The following examples show how to use each method in practice.

## Example: Extract P-Values from Linear Regression in Statsmodels

Suppose we have the following pandas DataFrame that contains information about hours studied, prep exams taken, and final score received by students in a certain class:

```import pandas as pd

#create DataFrame
df = pd.DataFrame({'hours': [1, 2, 2, 4, 2, 1, 5, 4, 2, 4, 4, 3, 6],
'exams': [1, 3, 3, 5, 2, 2, 1, 1, 0, 3, 4, 3, 2],
'score': [76, 78, 85, 88, 72, 69, 94, 94, 88, 92, 90, 75, 96]})

hours	exams	score
0	1	1	76
1	2	3	78
2	2	3	85
3	4	5	88
4	2	2	72```

We can use the OLS() function from the statsmodels module to fit a multiple linear regression model, using “hours” and “exams” as the predictor variables and “score” as the response variable:

```import statsmodels.api as sm

#define predictor and response variables
y = df['score']
x = df[['hours', 'exams']]

#fit linear regression model
model = sm.OLS(y, x).fit()

#view model summary
print(model.summary())

OLS Regression Results
==============================================================================
Dep. Variable:                  score   R-squared:                       0.718
Method:                 Least Squares   F-statistic:                     12.70
Date:                Fri, 05 Aug 2022   Prob (F-statistic):            0.00180
Time:                        09:24:38   Log-Likelihood:                -38.618
No. Observations:                  13   AIC:                             83.24
Df Residuals:                      10   BIC:                             84.93
Df Model:                           2
Covariance Type:            nonrobust
==============================================================================
coef    std err          t      P>|t|      [0.025      0.975]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
const         71.4048      4.001     17.847      0.000      62.490      80.319
hours          5.1275      1.018      5.038      0.001       2.860       7.395
exams         -1.2121      1.147     -1.057      0.315      -3.768       1.344
==============================================================================
Omnibus:                        1.103   Durbin-Watson:                   1.248
Prob(Omnibus):                  0.576   Jarque-Bera (JB):                0.803
Skew:                          -0.289   Prob(JB):                        0.669
Kurtosis:                       1.928   Cond. No.                         11.7
==============================================================================
```

By default, the summary() function displays the p-values of each predictor variable up to three decimal places:

• P-value for intercept: 0.000
• P-value for hours: 0.001
• P-value for exams: 0.315

However, we can extract the full p-values for each predictor variable in the model by using the following syntax:

```#extract p-values for all predictor variables
for x in range (0, 3):
print(model.pvalues[x])

6.514115622692573e-09
0.0005077783375870773
0.3154807854805659
```

This allows us to see the p-values to more decimal places:

• P-value for intercept: 0.00000000651411562269257
• P-value for hours: 0.0005077783375870773
• P-value for exams: 0.3154807854805659

Note: We used 3 in our range() function because there were three total coefficients in our regression model.

We can also use the following syntax to extract the p-value for the ‘hours’ variable specifically:

```#extract p-value for 'hours' only
model.pvalues.loc['hours']

0.0005077783375870773
```

Or we could use the following syntax to extract the p-value for the coefficient of a variable in a specific position of the regression model:

```#extract p-value for coefficient in index position 0
model.pvalues[0]

6.514115622692573e-09```