In statistics, the term **correlation **refers to the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables.

One special type of correlation is called **Spearman Rank Correlation**, which is used to measure the correlation between two ranked variables. (e.g. rank of a student’s math exam score vs. rank of their science exam score in a class).

The easiest way to calculate the Spearman Rank Correlation between two variables in SPSS is by using **Analyze** > **Correlate** > **Bivariate**.

The following example shows how to do so in practice.

**Example: How to Perform a Correlation Test in SPSS**

Suppose we have the following dataset in SPSS that contains information about the math exam score and science exam score received by 10 students in a particular class:

Suppose that we would like to calculate the correlation between these two variables and perform a correlation test to determine if the correlation coefficient is statistically significant.

To do so, click the **Analyze** tab, then click **Correlate**, then click **Bivariate**:

In the new window that appears, drag both the **Math **and **Science** variables into the **Variables** box.

Then check the box next to **Spearman** under **Correlation Coefficients**.

Then check the box next to **Show only the lower triangle**.

Then uncheck the box next to **Show diagonal**:

Then click **OK**.

The following output will appear:

From the output we can see:

- Spearman correlation coefficient:
**-.481** - p-value:
**.229** - N (number of pairs):
**10**

Since the correlation coefficient is negative, it indicates that there is a negative association between Math and Science exam scores.

However, the p-value (**.229**) associated with this correlation coefficient is not less than .05, so the correlation is not statistically significant.

**Related:** How to Report Spearman’s Correlation in APA Format

**Additional Resources**

The following tutorials explain how to perform other common operations in SPSS:

How to Create a Correlation Matrix in SPSS

How to Calculate Partial Correlation in SPSS

How to Calculate Percentiles in SPSS