You can use the **rep()** function in R to replicate elements of vectors or lists a certain number of times.

This function uses the following basic syntax:

**rep(x, times = 1, length.out = NA, each = 1)**

where:

**x**: The object to replicate**times**: The number of times to replicate object**length.out**: Repeated x as many times as necessary to create vector of this length**each**: Number of times to replicate individual elements in object

The following examples show how to use this function in practice.

**Note**: The rep() function is different than the replicate() function.

**Example 1: Replicate a Vector Multiple Times**

The following code shows how to use the **rep()** function to replicate a vector three times:

#define vector x <- c(1, 10, 50) #replicate the vector three times rep(x, times=3) [1] 1 10 50 1 10 50 1 10 50

The entire vector was replicated three times.

**Example 2: Replicate Each Value in Vector the Same Number of Times**

The following code shows how to use the **rep()** function to replicate **each** value in the vector five times:

#define vector x <- c(1, 10, 50) #replicate each value in vector five times rep(x, each=5) [1] 1 1 1 1 1 10 10 10 10 10 50 50 50 50 50

Each individual value in the vector was replicated five times.

**Example 3: Replicate Each Value in Vector a Different Number of Times**

The following code shows how to use the **rep()** function to replicate each value in the vector a specific number of **times**:

#define vector x <- c(1, 10, 50) #replicate each value in vector a specific number of times rep(x, times=c(2, 5, 3)) [1] 1 1 10 10 10 10 10 50 50 50

From the output we can see:

- The value 1 was replicated
**2**times. - The value 10 was replicated
**5**times. - The value 50 was replicated
**3**times.

**Example 4: Replicate Each Value in Vector the Same Number of Times, Multiple Times**

The following code shows how to use the **rep()** function to replicate **each** value in the vector four times and to repeat this process two **times**:

#define vector x <- c('A', 'B') #replicate each value in vector four times and do this process two times rep(x, each=4, times=2) [1] "A" "A" "A" "A" "B" "B" "B" "B" "A" "A" "A" "A" "B" "B" "B" "B"

Each value in the vector was replicated four times and we repeated this process two times.

**Additional Resources**

The following tutorials explain how to use other common functions in R:

How to Use the replace() Function in R

How to Use split() Function in R

How to Use the View() Function in R