# How to Add Text Outside of a Plot in R

You can use the following basic syntax to add text outside of a plot in R:

```text(x=8, y=-0.5, 'Some Text', xpd=NA)
```

This particular example adds the text ‘Some Text’ to the (x, y) location of (8, -0.5).

Note that the xpd argument takes on three potential values for where to place your text:

• FALSE: Inside the plot only
• TRUE: In the outer plotting area
• NA: Anywhere on plotting device

By specifying xpd=NA, we’re able to add text outside of our plot.

The following examples show how to use this syntax in practice.

## Example 1: Add One Text Element Outside of Plot

The following code shows how to add one text element outside of the plot in the bottom right corner:

```#define variables
x <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)
y <- c(4, 5, 5, 4, 6, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22)

#create scatterplot
plot(x, y)

text(x=8, y=-0.5, 'Some Text', xpd=NA)
```

Notice that our text element has been added to the (x, y) coordinates of (8, -0.5) in the plot.

Since the value for the y-coordinate is less than the lower limit of the y-axis, the text element ends up being placed below the plot.

## Example 2: Add Multiple Text Elements Outside of Plot

The following code shows how to add multiple text elements outside of the plot by using the text() function multiple times:

```#define variables
x <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)
y <- c(4, 5, 5, 4, 6, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22)

#create scatterplot
plot(x, y)

#add multiple text elements outside of plot
text(x=8, y=-0.5, 'Below Plot', xpd=NA)
text(x=8, y=25, 'Above Plot', xpd=NA)
```

By using the text() function multiple times, we’re able to add multiple text elements outside of the plot.

Feel free to play around with the x and y arguments within the text() function to place text in the exact position you’d like.