The easiest way to format numbers as percentages in R is to use the **percent()** function from the scales package. This function uses the following syntax:

**percent(x, accuracy = 1)**

where:

**x:**The object to format as a percentage.**accuracy:**A number to round to. For example, use .01 to round to two decimal places.

This tutorial provides several examples of how to use this function in practice.

**Example 1: Format Percentages in a Vector**

The following code shows how to format numbers as percentages in a vector:

library(scales) #create data data <- c(.3, .7, .14, .18, .22, .78) #format numbers as percentages percent(data, accuracy = 1) [1] "30%" "70%" "14%" "18%" "22%" "78%" #format numbers as percentages with one decimal place percent(data, accuracy = 0.1) [1] "30.0%" "70.0%" "14.0%" "18.0%" "22.0%" "78.0%" #format numbers as percentages with two decimal places percent(data, accuracy = 0.01) [1] "30.00%" "70.00%" "14.00%" "18.00%" "22.00%" "78.00%"

**Example 2: Format Percentages in a Data Frame Column**

The following code shows how to format numbers as percentages in a column of a data frame:

library(scales) #create data frame df = data.frame(region = c('A', 'B', 'C', 'D'), growth = c(.3, .7, .14, .18)) #view data frame df region growth 1 A 0.30 2 B 0.70 3 C 0.14 4 D 0.18 #format numbers as percentages in growth column df$growth <- percent(df$growth, accuracy=1) #view updated data frame df region growth 1 A 30% 2 B 70% 3 C 14% 4 D 18%

**Example 3: Format Percentages in Multiple Data Frame Columns**

The following code shows how to format numbers as percentages in multiple columns of a data frame:

library(scales) #create data frame df = data.frame(region = c('A', 'B', 'C', 'D'), growth = c(.3, .7, .14, .18), trend = c(.04, .09, .22, .25)) #view data frame df region growth trend 1 A 0.30 0.04 2 B 0.70 0.09 3 C 0.14 0.22 4 D 0.18 0.25 #format numbers as percentages in growth and trend columns df[2:3] <- sapply(df[2:3], function(x) percent(x, accuracy=1)) #view updated data frame df region growth trend 1 A 30% 4% 2 B 70% 9% 3 C 14% 22% 4 D 18% 25%

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