# How to Find P-Values in Google Sheets (Step-by-Step)

The easiest way to calculate p-values in Google Sheets is to use the T.TEST() function, which finds the p-value associated with a t-test and uses the following syntax:

T.TEST(range 1, range2, tails, type)

where:

• range1: The first sample of data
• range2: The second sample of data
• tails: The number of tails to use for the test
• 1: One-tailed (or “one-sided”) t-test
• 2: Two-tailed (or “two-sided) t-test
• type: The type of t-test
• 1: Paired t-test
• 2: Two sample t-test with equal variance
• 3: Two sample t-test with unequal variance

This function returns the p-value that corresponds with the t-test.

The following step-by-step example shows how to use this function in practice.

### Step 1: Create the Data

First, let’s create a fake dataset that contains the height of two different plant species: ### Step 2: Calculate the P-Value of the t-Test

Next, suppose we want to perform a t-test to determine if the mean height between the two plant species is equal.

The following screenshots show which formulas to use to calculate the p-values of the tests.

Paired Samples t-Test

We can use the following formula to calculate the p-value for a paired samples t-test: The p-value turns out to be 0.1586. Since this is not less than α = .05, we fail to reject the null hypothesis of the test. We do not have sufficient evidence to say that the mean height between the two species is different.

Two Sample t-Test with Equal Variance

We can use the following formula to calculate the p-value for a two sample t-test with equal variance: The p-value turns out to be 0.5300. Since this is not less than α = .05, we fail to reject the null hypothesis of the test. We do not have sufficient evidence to say that the mean height between the two species is different.

Two Sample t-Test with Unequal Variance

We can use the following formula to calculate the p-value for a two sample t-test with unequal variance: The p-value turns out to be 0.5302. Since this is not less than α = .05, we fail to reject the null hypothesis of the test. We do not have sufficient evidence to say that the mean height between the two species is different.