The easiest way to calculate p-values in Google Sheets is to use the **T.TEST()** function, which finds the p-value associated with a t-test and uses the following syntax:

**T.TEST(range 1, range2, tails, type)**

where:

**range1:**The first sample of data**range2:**The second sample of data**tails:**The number of tails to use for the test**1:**One-tailed (or “one-sided”) t-test**2:**Two-tailed (or “two-sided) t-test

**type:**The type of t-test**1:**Paired t-test**2:**Two sample t-test with equal variance**3:**Two sample t-test with unequal variance

This function returns the p-value that corresponds with the t-test.

The following step-by-step example shows how to use this function in practice.

**Step 1: Create the Data**

First, let’s create a fake dataset that contains the height of two different plant species:

**Step 2: Calculate the P-Value of the t-Test**

Next, suppose we want to perform a t-test to determine if the mean height between the two plant species is equal.

The following screenshots show which formulas to use to calculate the p-values of the tests.

**Paired Samples t-Test**

We can use the following formula to calculate the p-value for a paired samples t-test:

The p-value turns out to be **0.1586**. Since this is not less than α = .05, we fail to reject the null hypothesis of the test. We do not have sufficient evidence to say that the mean height between the two species is different.

**Two Sample t-Test with Equal Variance**

We can use the following formula to calculate the p-value for a two sample t-test with equal variance:

The p-value turns out to be **0.5300**. Since this is not less than α = .05, we fail to reject the null hypothesis of the test. We do not have sufficient evidence to say that the mean height between the two species is different.

**Two Sample t-Test with Unequal Variance**

We can use the following formula to calculate the p-value for a two sample t-test with unequal variance:

The p-value turns out to be **0.5302**. Since this is not less than α = .05, we fail to reject the null hypothesis of the test. We do not have sufficient evidence to say that the mean height between the two species is different.

**Additional Resources**

An Explanation of P-Values and Statistical Significance

How to Perform t-Tests in Google Sheets

How to Perform a One-Way ANOVA in Google Sheets