The mode of a dataset represents the most frequently occurring value.

In any given dataset, there can be no mode, one mode, or multiple modes.

The statistical software R does not have a built-in function to calculate the mode of a dataset, but you can use the following function to calculate the mode:

find_mode <- function(x) { u <- unique(x) tab <- tabulate(match(x, u)) u[tab == max(tab)] }

The following examples show how to use this function in practice.

**Example 1: Calculating the Mode of A Numeric Vector**

The following code shows how to use this function to calculate the mode of a numeric vector

**#define function to calculate mode
find_mode <- function(x) {
u <- unique(x)
tab <- tabulate(match(x, u))
u[tab == max(tab)]
}
#define numeric vector
data <- c(1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 6)
#find mode
find_mode(data)
[1] 4**

The mode of the dataset turns out to be **4**. This is the number that occurs most frequently.

Note that we can also use this function when there are multiple modes in a dataset:

**#define function to calculate mode
find_mode <- function(x) {
u <- unique(x)
tab <- tabulate(match(x, u))
u[tab == max(tab)]
}
#define numeric vector with multiple modes
data <- c(1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 6)
#find mode
find_mode(data)
[1] 2 4**

The modes of the dataset are **2** and **4**. Both of these numbers occur most frequently.

**Example 2: Calculating the Mode of a Character Vector**

This function can also be used to calculate the mode of a character vector:

**#define function to calculate mode
find_mode <- function(x) {
u <- unique(x)
tab <- tabulate(match(x, u))
u[tab == max(tab)]
}
#define character vector
data <- c('Sunny', 'Cloudy', 'Sunny', 'Sunny', 'Rainy', 'Cloudy')
#find mode
find_mode(data)
[1] "Sunny"**

The mode turns out to be “Sunny” – this is the string that occurs most often in the vector.

**Additional Resources**

The following tutorials explain how to calculate other descriptive statistics in R:

How to Calculate Five Number Summary in R

How to Create Summary Tables in R

How to Use the mean() Function in R