The Complete Guide: Hypothesis Testing in Excel


In statistics, a hypothesis test is used to test some assumption about a population parameter.

There are many different types of hypothesis tests you can perform depending on the type of data you’re working with and the goal of your analysis.

This tutorial explains how to perform the following types of hypothesis tests in Excel:

  • One sample t-test
  • Two sample t-test
  • Paired samples t-test
  • One proportion z-test
  • Two proportion z-test

Let’s jump in!

Example 1: One Sample t-test in Excel

A one sample t-test is used to test whether or not the mean of a population is equal to some value.

For example, suppose a botanist wants to know if the mean height of a certain species of plant is equal to 15 inches.

To test this, she collects a random sample of 12 plants and records each of their heights in inches.

She would write the hypotheses for this particular one sample t-test as follows:

  • H0µ = 15
  • HAµ ≠15

Refer to this tutorial for a step-by-step explanation of how to perform this hypothesis test in Excel.

Example 2: Two Sample t-test in Excel

A two sample t-test is used to test whether or not the means of two populations are equal.

For example, suppose researchers want to know whether or not two different species of plants have the same mean height.

To test this, they collect a random sample of 20 plants from each species and measure their heights.

The researchers would write the hypotheses for this particular two sample t-test as follows:

  • H0µ1 = µ2
  • HAµ1 ≠ µ2

Refer to this tutorial for a step-by-step explanation of how to perform this hypothesis test in Excel.

Example 3: Paired Samples t-test in Excel

A paired samples t-test is used to compare the means of two samples when each observation in one sample can be paired with an observation in the other sample.

For example, suppose we want to know whether a certain study program significantly impacts student performance on a particular exam.

To test this, we have 20 students in a class take a pre-test. Then, we have each of the students participate in the study program for two weeks. Then, the students retake a post-test of similar difficulty.

We would write the hypotheses for this particular two sample t-test as follows:

  • H0µpre = µpost
  • HAµpre ≠ µpost

Refer to this tutorial for a step-by-step explanation of how to perform this hypothesis test in Excel.

Example 4: One Proportion z-test in Excel

one proportion z-test is used to compare an observed proportion to a theoretical one.

For example, suppose a phone company claims that 90% of its customers are satisfied with their service.

To test this claim, an independent researcher gathered a simple random sample of 200 customers and asked them if they are satisfied with their service.

We would write the hypotheses for this particular two sample t-test as follows:

  • H0: p = 0.90
  • HA: p ≠ 0.90

Refer to this tutorial for a step-by-step explanation of how to perform this hypothesis test in Excel.

Example 5: Two Proportion z-test in Excel

A two proportion z-test is used to test for a difference between two population proportions.

For example, suppose a superintendent of a school district claims that the percentage of students who prefer chocolate milk over regular milk in school cafeterias is the same for school 1 and school 2.

To test this claim, an independent researcher obtains a simple random sample of 100 students from each school and surveys them about their preferences.

We would write the hypotheses for this particular two sample t-test as follows:

  • H0: p1= p2
  • HA: p1 ≠ p2

Refer to this tutorial for a step-by-step explanation of how to perform this hypothesis test in Excel.

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