**Descriptive statistics** are values that describe a dataset.

They help us gain an understanding of where the center of the dataset is located along with how spread out the values are in the dataset.

There are two common ways to calculate descriptive statistics for variables in SAS:

**1.** Use **PROC MEANS** to Calculate Summary Statistics

**2.** Use **PROC UNIVARIATE** to Calculate Detailed Descriptive Statistics

The following examples show how to use each method in practice with the following dataset in SAS:

/*create dataset*/ data my_data; input team $ points assists; datalines; A 10 2 A 17 5 A 17 6 A 18 3 A 15 0 B 10 2 B 14 5 B 13 4 B 29 0 B 25 2 C 12 1 C 30 1 C 34 3 C 12 4 C 11 7 ; run; /*view dataset*/ proc print data=my_data;

**Example 1. Use PROC MEANS to Calculate Summary Statistics**

The following code shows how to use **PROC MEANS** to calculate summary statistics for the **points** variable in the dataset:

/*calculate summary statistics for points variable*/ proc means data=my_data; var points; run;

The **PROC MEANS** procedure calculates the following descriptive statistics:

**N**: The total number of observations**Mean**: The mean value of points**Std**Dev: The standard deviation of points**Minimum**: The minimum value of points**Maximum**: The maximum value of points

Also note that you can use the class statement to calculate descriptive statistics for one variable, grouped by another variable.

For example, we can use the following code to calculate summary statistics for the **points** variable, grouped by the **team** variable:

/*calculate summary statistics for points, grouped by team*/ proc means data=my_data; class team; var points; run;

The output displays the summary statistics for the **points** variable, grouped by each of the unique **team** values.

**Example 2. Use PROC UNIVARIATE to Calculate Detailed Descriptive Statistics**

The following code shows how to use **PROC UNIVARIATE **to calculate detailed descriptive statistics for the **points** variable:

/*calculate detailed descriptive statistics for points variable*/ proc univariate data=my_data; var points; run;

The **PROC UNIVARIATE **procedure calculates detailed descriptive statistics for the **points** variable including the mean, median, mode, standard deviation, variance, range, interquartile range, and more.

We can also use the **class** statement to calculate these detailed descriptive statistics for the **points **variable, grouped by the **team** variable:

/*calculate detailed descriptive statistics for points, grouped by team*/ proc univariate data=my_data; class team; var points; run;

This will produce three groups of output tables that display detailed descriptive statistics for the **points** variable, grouped by each of the unique **team** values.

**Additional Resources**

The following tutorials explain how to perform other common tasks in SAS:

How to Create Frequency Tables in SAS

How to Calculate Percentiles in SAS

How to Create Pivot Tables in SAS