**Cramer’s V** is a measure of the strength of association between two nominal variables.

It ranges from 0 to 1 where:

**0**indicates no association between the two variables.**1**indicates a strong association between the two variables.

It is calculated as:

**Cramer’s V = √(X ^{2}/n) / min(c-1, r-1)**

where:

**X**The Chi-square statistic^{2}:**n:**Total sample size**r:**Number of rows**c:**Number of columns

The easiest way to calculate Cramer’s V in SPSS is to use **Analyze** > **Descriptive Statistics** > **Crosstabs**.

The following example shows how to do so in practice.

**Example: How to Calculate Cramer’s V in SPSS**

Suppose we would like to understand if there is an association between two exam prep methods and the passing rate of students.

The following dataset in SPSS shows the pass / fail result of students along with the exam prep method they used:

**Note**: There are 36 total observations but only the first 23 are shown in this screenshot.

We can calculate Cramer’s V to determine the strength of association between exam prep method and the passing rate of students.

To do so, click the **Analyze** tab, then click **Descriptive Statistics**, then click **Crosstabs**:

In the new window that appears, drag the **Method** variable to the **Rows** panel, then drag the **Result** variable to the **Columns** panel:

Then click the **Statistics** button.

Then check the box next to **Phi and Cramer’s V**:

Then click **Continue**. Then click **OK**.

The following output will appear:

The first table shows the number of total observations. There are N = 36 total observations.

The second table displays a crosstab that summarizes the count of students based on pass / fail result and the exam prep method used.

The third table displays Cramer’s V.

From this third table we can see that Cramer’s V turns out to be **0.162**.

We can use the following table to determine whether a Cramer’s V should be considered a small, medium, or large effect size based on the degrees of freedom used:

In this example, the degrees of freedom is equal to 1. Thus, a Cramer’s V of **0.162** would be considered a small effect size.

In other words, there is a weak association between the exam prep method used and the passing rate of students.

**Additional Resources**

The following tutorials explain how to perform other common tasks in SPSS:

How to Create a Frequency Table in SPSS

How to Calculate Mean by Group in SPSS

How to Calculate Percentiles in SPSS