**Linear regression** is a technique we use to quantify the relationship between one or more predictor variables and a response variable.

One of the key assumptions of linear regression is that the residuals have constant variance at every level of the predictor variable(s).

If this assumption is not met, the residuals are said to suffer from heteroscedasticity. When this occurs, the estimates for the model coefficients become unreliable.

**How to Assess Constant Variance**

The most common way to determine if the residuals of a regression model have constant variance is to create a **fitted values vs. residuals plot**.

This is a type of plot that displays the fitted values of the regression model along the x-axis and the residuals of those fitted values along the y-axis.

If the spread of the residuals is roughly equal at each level of the fitted values, we say that the constant variance assumption is met.

Otherwise, if the spread of the residuals systematically increases or decreases, this assumption is likely violated.

**Note**: This type of plot can only be created *after* fitting a regression model to the dataset.

The following plot shows an example of a fitted values vs. residual plot that displays **constant variance**:

Notice how the residuals are scattered randomly about zero in no particular pattern with roughly constant variance at every level of the fitted values.

The following plot shows an example of a fitted values vs. residual plot that displays **non-constant variance**:

Notice that the spread of the residuals grows larger and larger as the fitted values increase. This is a typical sign of non-constant variance.

This tells us that our regression model suffers from non-constant variance of residuals and thus the estimates for the model coefficients aren’t reliable.

**How to Fix a Violation of Constant Variance**

If the assumption of constant variance is violated, the most common way to deal with it is to transform the response variable using one of the three transformations:

**1. Log Transformation: **Transform the response variable from y to **log(y)**

**2. Square Root Transformation: **Transform the response variable from y to **√y**

**3. Cube Root Transformation:** Transform the response variable from y to **y ^{1/3}**

By performing these transformations, the problem of non-constant variance typically goes away.

**Additional Resources**

The following tutorials provide additional information about linear regression and residual analysis:

Introduction to Simple Linear Regression

Introduction to Multiple Linear Regression

The Four Assumptions of Linear Regression

What Are Residuals in Statistics?