You can use either the **c()** function or the **append()** function to combine two or more lists in R:

#combine two lists using c() combined <- c(list1, list2) #combine two lists using append() combined <- append(list1, list2)

Both functions will produce the same result.

The following examples show how to use this syntax in practice.

**Example 1: Combine Two Lists**

The following code shows how to combine two lists in R:

#define lists list1 <- list(2, 5, 6, 8) list2 <- list(A = 1:5, B = 3) #combine two lists into one combined <- c(list1, list2) #view combined list combined [[1]] [1] 2 [[2]] [1] 5 [[3]] [1] 6 [[4]] [1] 8 $A [1] 1 2 3 4 5 $B [1] 3

We can also use the **length()** function to get the length of the combined list:

#get length of combined list length(combined) [1] 6

We can also use the **class()** function to get the class of the combined list:

#get class of combined list class(combined) [1] "list"

**Example 2: Combine More Than Two Lists**

We can use similar syntax to combine more than two lists in R:

#define lists list1 <- list(2, 5, 6, 8) list2 <- list(A = 1:5, B = 3) list3 <- list(X = 'A', Y = 'B') #combine three lists into one combined <- c(list1, list2, list3) #view combined list combined [[1]] [1] 2 [[2]] [1] 5 [[3]] [1] 6 [[4]] [1] 8 $A [1] 1 2 3 4 5 $B [1] 3 $X [1] "A" $Y [1] "B"

**Additional Resources**

The following tutorials offer additional information about lists in R:

How to Create an Empty List in R

How to Append Values to List in R

How to Convert List to Matrix in R

How to Convert List to Vector in R