# How to Calculate the Cross Product of Vectors in Python

The cross product is an operation exclusive to three-dimensional vectors that results in a vector perpendicular to both of the vectors being multiplied.  Let’s begin…

# How to Calculate the Outer Product of Vectors in Python

In linear algebra, the outer product of two vectors produces a matrix. Each element in this matrix is the product of elements from the two…

# How to Perform Vector Hadamard Multiplication in Python

Hadamard multiplication, also known as element-wise multiplication, involves multiplying two vectors of the same dimension, element by element. Let’s begin by examining two column vectors:…

# How to Compute the Angle Between Vectors Using Python

The angle between two vectors represents the spatial relationship or orientation between them. A smaller angle means the vectors are more closely aligned, while a…

# How to Calculate the Length or Magnitude of a Vector in Python

The magnitude or length of a vector is a measure of its size. This metric is commonly referred to as the Euclidean norm of a…

# How to Compute the Dot Product of Vectors in Python

The dot product multiplies corresponding components of two vectors and sums the results. One critical condition for calculating the dot product is that both vectors…

# How to Multiply a Vector by a Scalar in Python

A scalar is simply a single number. It can be thought of as a vector with a single dimension, representing only magnitude without direction. Scalar…

# How to Add and Subtract Vectors in Python

Adding and subtracting vectors are essential operations that allow us to manipulate vectors for various applications, from physics to computer graphics. These vector operations, central…

# How to Initiate and Visualize a 3D Vector in Python

A 3D vector extends the concept of a 2D vector into three dimensions. It is an ordered set of numbers that comprises three elements often represented…

# How to Initiate and Visualize a 2D Vector in Python

A vector is simply an ordered set of numbers. The dimension of a vector is determined by the number of elements it contains. In the…