# How to Conduct an ANCOVA in R

This tutorial explains how to conduct an ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) in R. What is an ANCOVA? To understand the ANCOVA, it first helps to…

# How to Efficiently Convert a Factor to Numeric or Integer in R

Suppose we have the following vector that is of the class factor and has 10 elements: #make this example reproducible set.seed(0) #create factor vector with 10…

# How to Conduct a MANOVA in R

This tutorial explains how to conduct a MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) in R. What is a MANOVA? To understand the MANOVA, it first helps…

# How to Create a Density Plot in R Using ggplot2

In statistics, we’re often interested in understanding how a particular variable is distributed in a dataset. One common way to visualize the distribution of a variable…

# How to Create Beautiful Violin Plots in R

Similar to boxplots, violin plots are used to visualize the distribution of continuous data. Unlike boxplots, though, violin plots show the kernel probability density of…

# A Guide to Using Post Hoc Tests with ANOVA

An ANOVA is a statistical test that is used to determine whether or not there is a statistically significant difference between the means of three…

# How to Create a Lollipop Chart in R

Similar to a bar chart, a lollipop chart is useful for comparing the quantitative values of a categorical variable. Instead of using bars, though, a lollipop chart…

# Inverse t Distribution Calculator

This calculator finds the t-Score associated with a given degrees of freedom and confidence level. Enter the degrees of freedom and the confidence level in…

# Three Sigma Calculator

The standard deviation is a common way to measure how “spread out” data values are. In statistics, the standard deviation is often referred to as…

# A Guide to Counting Elements in R

This tutorial explains how to count the number of elements that are equal to specific values in vectors and data frames in R. Counting Elements…